You can find this file on power point format here.
Intelligent system can be defined as: system which employs methods and techniques from artificial intelligence. And Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an Intelligence of machines.

What is AI?

Thinking humanly: cognitive modeling
  • 1960's "cognitive revolution": information-processing psychology
  • Requires scientific theories of internal activities of the brain
  • Both approaches (roughly, Cognitive Science and Cognitive Neuroscience) are now distinct from AI
  • How to validate? Require: (1) Predicting and testing behavior of human subjects (top-down) or (2) Direct identification from neurological data (bottom-up) 
Thinking rationally
  • Aristotle: what are correct arguments/thought processes?
  • Several Greek schools developed various forms of logic: notation and rules of derivation for thoughts; may or may not have proceeded to the idea of mechanization
  • Direct line through mathematics and philosophy to modern AI
  • Problems: (1) Not all intelligent behavior is mediated by logical deliberation (2)What is the purpose of thinking? What thoughts should I have?
Acting Humanly
    • Turing (1950) "Computing machinery and intelligence":
    • "Can machines think?" -->; "Can machines behave intelligently?"
    • Operational test for intelligent behavior: the Imitation Game

    • Predicted that by 2000, a machine might have a 30% chance of fooling a lay person for 5 minutes
    • Anticipated all major arguments against AI in following 50 years
    • Suggested major components of AI: knowledge, reasoning, language understanding, learning
    Acting Rationally
    • Rational behavior: doing the right thing 
    • The right thing: that which is expected to maximize goal achievement, given the available information 
    • Doesn't necessarily involve thinking – e.g., blinking reflex – but thinking should be in the service of rational action
    Rational Agents
    • An agent is an entity that perceives and acts
    • This course is about designing rational agents
    • Abstractly, an agent is a function from percept histories to actions:
                                [f: P* -> A]
    • For any given class of environments and tasks, we seek the agent (or class of agents) with the best performance
    • Caveat: computational limitations make perfect rationality unachievable -> design best program for given machine resources
    AI Prehistory
    • Philosophy --> Logic, methods of reasoning, mind as physical system foundations of learning, language, rationality
    • Mathematics --> Formal representation and proof algorithms, computation, (un)decidability, (in)tractability, probability
    • Economics --> utility, decision theory
    • Neuroscience --> physical substrate for mental activity
    • Psychology --> phenomena of perception and motor control, experimental techniques
    • Computer engineering --> building fast computers
    • Control theory --> design systems that maximize an objective function over time
    • Linguistics --> knowledge representation, grammar
    State of The Art
    • Deep Blue defeated the reigning world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997
    • Proved a mathematical conjecture (Robbins conjecture) unsolved for decades
    • No hands across America (driving autonomously 98% of the time from Pittsburgh to San Diego)
    • During the 1991 Gulf War, US forces deployed an AI logistics planning and scheduling program that involved up to 50,000 vehicles, cargo, and people
    • NASA's on-board autonomous planning program controlled the scheduling of operations for a spacecraft
    • Proverb solves crossword puzzles better than most humans

    Hope it useful :)


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